Want to know a bit more about how in situ chemical oxidation works?  Click here.

Email XDD at keane@xdd-llc.com for case studies associated with our in situ remedial technology experience.


Technical expertise is important for my projects.   XDD is flexible, likable, and not expensive relative to the services they provide. Unlike some companies who do things the same way every time, XDD is very agile when confronted with changing site conditions. Abbie K. Baker

Environmental Attorney


ISCO: In Situ Chemical Oxidation

XDD is the industry leader for in situ chemical oxidation services. We provide A to Z with regard to the design, testing and implementation of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) technologies.  Each of these services can be used individually, but the best results are obtained when these services are used together as part of an integrative approach. These services include:

Treatability Testing for ISCO

XDD Environmental provides one of the nation’s leading in situ chemical oxidation treatability testing facilities.  Treatability testing is often used to determine the oxidant dosing amounts (to avoid post- application rebound), identify potential failure mechanisms, and determine the most favorable activation chemistry (if necessary).  Often short term pricing pressures result in the treatability testing step to be skipped, usually resulting in under-dosing and rebound after the in situ chemical oxidation full-scale application.

Design Services

XDD has designed a significant number of in situ chemical oxidation projects using several different application strategies including direct injection, pull-push, and re-circulation.

For example, often a less-experienced firm will complete an in situ chemical oxidation injection event for a mostly dissolved contaminant (e.g., 1,4-dioxane) via direct injection.  In this particular example, the injection fluid can often displace or “push” the contaminant, causing the overall extent of the impacts to increase significantly.  XDD Environmental will take factors such as the contaminant solubility in account and design an application that uses recirculation or pull-push strategies.  While these in situ chemical oxidation applications can be more expensive than direct injection, they minimize application risks and end up being less expensive over the life cycle of the project.

ISCO Implementation

XDD is renowned for our high quality implementation services with a stellar health and safety record. We have successfully implemented in situ chemical oxidation to treat both large and small sites with numerous site-specific challenges.  These include:

  • Active/operational industrial facilities
  • Sensitive and restricted areas at government facilities
  • Busy commercial districts
  • Suburban neighborhoods requiring XDD to be off site daily before local schools let out
  • and many others

Baseline Soil Contaminated with Coal Tar

Post In Situ Chemical Oxidation Treated Soil

XDD Environmental was among the first companies to apply activated persulfate and stabilized hydrogen peroxide as in situ chemical oxidation technologies.  XDD regularly publishes book chapters, assists on guidance documents, presents at multiple national conferences, and completes government funded field and bench studies. Our engineers and scientists have experience in the following oxidant systems:

  • Persulfate
    • Iron-chelate activated
    • Alkaline activated
    • Naturally activated
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
    • Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide (e.g. Fenton’s Reagent)
    • Stabilized Hydrogen Peroxide
    • Acidified Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Permanganate

ISCO Services

  • Design-build
  • Installation oversight
  • Oversight of equipment fabrication vendors
  • Operations and performance sampling
  • Regulatory negotiations
  • Peer review and optimization recommendations

For list of our short courses, peer reviewed publications, and conference proceedings, click here.