Millions of Pounds of Oxidants Injected

Want to know a bit more about how In Situ Chemical Oxidation works?  Click here.

Email XDD at keane@xdd-llc.com for case studies associated with our in situ remedial technology experience.

 

Technical expertise is important for my projects.   XDD is flexible, likable, and not expensive relative to the services they provide. Unlike some companies who do things the same way every time, XDD is very agile when confronted with changing site conditions. Abbie K. Baker

Environmental Attorney

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In Situ Chemical Oxidation

XDD has applied over 2.7 million pounds of oxidant at over 80 sites. We provide A to Z services with regard to the design, testing and implementation of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) technologies.  Each of these services can be used individually, but the best results are obtained when these services are used together as part of an integrative approach. These services include:

Bench Scale Treatability Tests:

XDD provides one of the nation’s leading ISCO bench testing facilities.

Design:

XDD has designed a significant number of projects using several different application strategies including direct injection, pull-push, and re-circulation. Our in-depth understanding of each technology allows us to select the optimal chemistry for each site.

Implementation:

XDD is renowned for our high quality implementation services with a stellar health and safety record. We have successfully implemented ISCO to treat both large and small sites with numerous site-specific challenges including:

  • Active/operational industrial facilities
  • Sensitive and restricted areas at government facilities
  • Busy commercial districts
  • Suburban neighborhoods requiring XDD to be off site daily before local schools let out
  • and many others

XDD was among the first companies to apply activated persulfate and stabilized hydrogen peroxide.  XDD regularly publishes book chapters, assists on guidance documents, presents at multiple national conferences, and completes government funded field and bench studies. Our engineers and scientists have experience in the following oxidant systems:

  • Persulfate
    • Iron-chelate activated
    • Alkaline activated
    • Naturally activated
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
    • Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide (e.g. Fenton’s Reagent)
    • Stabilized Hydrogen Peroxide
    • Acidified Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Permanganate

Services:

  • Design-build
  • Installation oversight
  • Oversight of equipment fabrication vendors
  • Operations and maintenance
  • Regulatory negotiations
  • Peer review and optimization recommendations

 

Short Courses/Training Seminars
  • Design and Application Training Seminar (2 hours) Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Agency (CTDEP, Rocky Hill, Connecticut, October 2004.
  • Workshop (6 hours) 20th Annual International Conference on Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water, Amherst, Massachusetts, October 2004.
  • Design and Application Short Course (4 hours) Third International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May 2004.
  • Design and Application Training Seminar (2 hours) New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC, Albany, New York, January 2004.
  • In Situ Chemical Oxidation Workshop (6 hours) 19th Annual International Conference on Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water, Amherst, Massachusetts, October 2003.
  • In Situ Chemical Oxidation Short Course (6 hours) NGWA Conference on MTBE Assessment, Remediation, and Public Policy Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, June 2003.
  • Application of In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) Internet Seminar (4 hours) Environmental Institute of Continuing Education (EICE), January 2003.
  • In Situ Chemical Oxidation: Design and Application Training Seminar (2 hours) New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Agency (NJDEP) Site Remediation Program (SRP), Trenton, New Jersey, October 2002.
  • In Situ Chemical Oxidation Workshop (6 hours) 18th Annual International Conference on Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water, Amherst, Massachusetts, October 2002.
  • Application of In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) Short Course (4 hours) Third International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May 2002.
Peer Reviewed Publications
  • Liang, C., C.J. Bruell, M.C. Marley, and K.L. Sperry, 2004, “Persulfate oxidation for in situ remediation of TCE. I. Activated by ferrous ion with and without a persulfate-thiosulfate redox couple”, Chemosphere, 55(9), 1213-1223.
  • Liang, C., C.J. Bruell, M.C. Marley and K.L. Sperry, 2004b, “Persulfate oxidation for in situ remediation of TCE. II. Activated by chelated ferrous ion”, Chemosphere, 55(9), 1225-1233.
  • Kelley, K.L., M.C. Marley and K.L. Sperry, 2003,  Chapter 11: In Situ Chemical Oxidation, MTBE Remediation Handbook, Eds. E.E Moyer and P.T. Kostecki, American Scientific Publishers, Amherst, Massachusetts, pp: 223-239.
  • Liang, C., C.J. Bruell, M.C. Marley and K.L. Sperry, 2003, “Thermally Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA) in Aqueous Systems and Soil Slurries”, Soil & Sediment Contamination, 12(2): 207-228.
  • Kelley, K.L., M.C. Marley and K.L. Sperry, 2002, “In-Situ Chemical Oxidation of MTBE”, Contaminated Soil, Sediment & Water, AEHS, Inc. Amherst, MA, July/August 2002.
Conference Proceedings and Presentations
  • Smith, B. A., “In-Situ Chemical Oxidation: A Remedial Tool for Contaminated Groundwater, Sediments and Soil”, Proceedings of New England Water Environment Association: 2006 Annual Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, January 24, 2006.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Osgerby, I.T, S.E. Acone, B. Smith, S. Crawford, A. Boeckeler, S. Getchell, “Field Scale Comparison of Activated Persulfate and Modified Fenton’s Reagent for Treatment of Chlorinated Benzene Compounds”, Proceedings of The Fourth International Conference on Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater, Chicago, Illinois, October 23-27, 2005.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Marley M. K. Sperry, K. Spitz, P. Block, “An Integrated Approach to Successful ISCO Application”, Proceedings of The Fourth International Conference on Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater, Chicago, Illinois, October 23-27, 2005.  (Poster Presentation)
  • Smith, B., S. Crawford, I. Osgerby, S.E. Acone, A. Boeckeler, S. Getchell, “Dual-Technology Pilot Study of In Situ Chemical Oxidation at the Eastland Woolen Mill Superfund Site”, Proceedings of The 21st Annual International Conference on Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water, Amherst, Massachusetts, October 17-20, 2005.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Marley M. K. Sperry, K. Spitz, P. Block, “An Integrated Approach to Successful ISCO Application”, Proceedings of The 21st Annual International Conference on Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water, Amherst, Massachusetts, October 17-20, 2005.   (Poster Presentation)
  • Getchell, S., A. Boeckeler, S. Crawford, B. Smith, S. Acone, I. Osgerby, E. Hathaway, “Dual-Technology Pilot Study of In Situ Chemical Oxidation in Glacial Till at the Eastland Woolen Mill Superfund Site, Corinna, Maine”, Proceedings of 2005 NGWA Focus Conference on Eastern Regional Ground Water Issues, Portland, Maine, September 26-27, 2005. (Platform Presentation)
  • Marley, M., J.M. Parikh, I.P. Murarka, P.F. Killian, C.J. Bruell, “An Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) Using Persulfate for MGP Impacted Soils”, Proceedings of Gas Technology Institute (GTI)–Natural Gas Technology 2005 Conference, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, January 30 to February 2, 2005.
  • Crawford, S.C.,  K.L. Sperry, “In-Situ Chemical Oxidation of Petroleum Contamination by Activated Persulfate – Field Study”, Proceedings of The 20th Annual International Conference on Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water, Amherst, Massachusetts, October 18-21, 2004.  (Poster Presentation)
  • Liang, C., Bruell, C.J., Marley, M.C., Sperry, K.L., “Modified Ferrous Ion Activated Persulfate Oxidation for In Situ Remediation of Trichloroethylene”, Proceedings of The 20th Annual International Conference on Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water, Amherst, Massachusetts, October 18-24, 2004.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Marley, M. C. and K L. Sperry, “ State of the Practice in ISCO – Focus on Critical issues and Technology Application”, Proceedings of The Third International Conference on Oxidation Reduction Technologies for In Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater (ORTs-3), San Diego, CA, October 2004 (Platform Presentation)
  • Smith, B.A., and Watts, R.J., “A Fundamental Approach to Minimizing Net Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposition in Modified Fenton’s Reagent”, Proceedings of The Tenth International Conference on Advanced Oxidation Technologies for Water and Air Remediation (AOTs-10), San Diego, CA, October 2004 (Platform Presentation)
  • Smith, B.A., and Watts, R.J., “Enhanced Destruction of Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) using Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide (Modified Fenton’s Reagent)”, The Third International Conference on Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater (ORTs-3), San Diego, CA, October 2004 (Platform Presentation)
  • Gefell, M.J., K.L. Sperry, J.R. Rawson, E. Kolodziej, “Field-Scale TCE Oxidation in Sedimentary Bedrock: KMnO4 and Br Tracer Test Results and Extended Pilot Design”, Proceedings of 2004 U.S. EPA/NGWA Fractured Rock Conference: State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation, Portland, Maine, September 13-15, 2004 (Poster Presentation)
  • Gefell, M.J., B.H. Kueper, K.L. Sperry, and J.R. Rawson, “Measuring Mass Balance, Oxidant Half-Life, and Treatment Efficiency – Field-Scale PCE Oxidation Using KMnO4 in Fractured Phyllite”, Proceedings of 2004 U.S. EPA/NGWA Fractured Rock Conference: State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation, Portland, Maine, September 13-15, 2004 (Platform Presentation)
  • Sperry, K.L, S. Crawford, K. Kelley, L. Crawford, S. Magee, J.T. Cookson, “X-Ox Process: New Oxidation Technology for Gasoline Constituents Including MTBE/TBA”, Proceedings of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Groundwater: Prevention, Assessment, and Remediation Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, August 16-18, 2004 (Poster Presentation)
  • Marley, M.C., B.L. Cliff, C.J. Bruell, P. Killian and C. Liang, “In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) for MGP Impacted Soils and Ground Water”, Proceedings of Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, The Fourth International Conference, Monterey, California, May 24-27, 2004, Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio. (Platform Presentation)
  • Sperry, K.L, S. Crawford, K. Kelley, L. Crawford, S. Magee, J.T. Cookson, “X-Ox Process: New Oxidation Technology for Gasoline Constituents Including MTBE/TBA”, Proceedings of Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, The Fourth International Conference, Monterey, California, May 24-27, 2004, Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio. (Poster Presentation)
  • Gefell, M.J., K.L. Sperry, J.R. Rawson, E. Kolodziej, “Field-Scale TCE Oxidation in Sedimentary Bedrock Using Permanganate with Bromide Tracer”, Proceedings ofRemediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, The Fourth International Conference, Monterey, California, May 24-27, 2004, Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio. (Platform Presentation)
  • Gefell, M.J., K.L. Sperry, J.R. Rawson and B.H. Kueper, “Field-Scale DNAPL-Zone Treatment Using Potassium Permanganate in Fractured Meta-Sedimentary Bedrock”, Proceedings of Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, The Fourth International Conference, Monterey, California, May 24-27, 2004, Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio. (Poster Presentation)
  • Marley, M.C., B.L. Cliff, K.L. Sperry, J.M. Parikh, “An Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) for MGP Impacted Soils and Ground Water”, Proceedings of Natural Gas Technologies II: Ingenuity & Innovation, Phoenix, Arizona, February 8-11, 2004.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Marley, M.C., B.L. Cliff, C.J. Bruell, P.F. Killian, C. Liang, “In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) for MGP Impacted Soils and Ground Water”, Proceedings of NGWA Remediation Conference: Site Closure and Cost of Cleanup, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 13-14, 2003.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Gefell, M.J., K.L. Sperry, J. Rawson, E. Kolodziej, P. Mlodzinski, and C.M. Stanley, “Field-Scale Measurement of Permanganate Consumption Rate and TCE Oxidation in Fractured Bedrock — Tracer Test using Permanganate and Bromide”, Proceedings of NGWA Remediation Conference: Site Closure and Cost of Cleanup, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 13-14, 2003.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Marley, M.C., B.L. Cliff, K.L. Sperry and J.M. Parikh, “An Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) for MGP Impacted Soils and Ground Water”, Proceedings of The 19th Annual International Conference on Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water, Amherst, Massachusetts, October 21-24, 2003.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Marley, M.C., B.L. Cliff, K.L. Sperry and J.M. Parikh, “An Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) for MGP Impacted Soils and Ground Water”, Proceedings of EPRI MGP 2003 Forum, Denver, Colorado, June 17-19, 2003. (Platform Presentation)
  • Cookson, J.T., K.L. Sperry, K.L. Kelley and M.C. Marley, “In Situ Chemical Oxidation of MTBE”, Proceedings of NGWA MTBE Focus Conference: Assessment, Remediation, and Public Policy, Baltimore, Maryland, June 5-6, 2003. (Platform Presentation)
  • Marley, M., J.M. Parikh, E.X. Droste, A.M. Lee, P.M. Dinardo, B.A. Woody, P. Chheda and G. Hoag, “Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination Resulting From A Chemical Oxidation Pilot Test”, Proceedings of In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Conference, Orlando, Florida, June 2-5.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Cookson, J.T., K.L. Sperry, C.M. Stanley, O.J. Upal and M.C. Marley, “Technology Status of In-Situ Degradation of UXO Constituents by Chemical Oxidation”, Proceedings of Tri-Services Symposium, Charlotte, North Carolina, March 25-28, 2003.  (Poster Presentation)
  • Liang, C., Bruell, C.J., Marley, M.C., Sperry, K.L., “Laboratory Evaluation of Iron Catalyzed Persulfate Oxidation of Trichloroethylene”, AEHS Contaminated Soil Sediment & Water, AEHS, Inc. Amherst, MA, p. 42, January/February 2003.
  • Crawford, S.C., O.J. Uppal, G.E. Hoag, and R. Cooper, “Full Scale Chemical Oxidation Treatment of a Utility Trench and Low Permeability Silty Clay Soils using a Multi-Dose Injection Approach”, Proceedings of The Second International Conference on Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 17-21, 2002.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Uppal, O.J., M.C. Marley and K.L. Sperry, “Significance Of Chemical Oxidant Stability In Mass Transfer And Mass Transport Limiting In Situ Chemical Oxidation Applications”, Proceedings of The Second International Conference on Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 17-21, 2002.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Nelson, M.N., B.L. Parker and J.A. Cherry, “Effects of Carbonate Mineral Buffering On Permanganate Post-Treatment Geochemistry In Sandy Aquifers”, Proceedings of The Second International Conference on Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 17-21, 2002.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Cookson, J.T., K.L. Sperry, O.J. Uppal, M.C. Marley, “In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Energetic Compounds”, Proceedings of The Second International Conference on Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 17-21, 2002.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Liang, C., C.J. Bruell, M.C. Marley and K.L. Sperry, “Laboratory Evaluation of Iron Catalyzed Persulfate Oxidation Of Trichloroethylene”, Proceedings of The 18th Annual International Conference on Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water, Amherst, Massachusetts, October 21-24, 2002.  (Poster Presentation)
  • Liang, C., C.J. Bruell, M.C. Marley and K.L. Sperry, “Treatability Study of In Situ Remediation of Trichloroethylene (TCE) Contamination by Persulfate Oxidation”, Proceedings of The First Cross-Strait Soil and Groundwater Remediation Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, September 4-6, 2002. (Platform Presentation)
  • Marley, M.C., K.L. Kelley and K.L. Sperry, “In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) of MTBE”, Proceedings of NGWA MTBE Focus Conference: Assessment, Remediation, and Public Policy, Orange, California, June 24, 2002.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Kelley, K.L., M.C. Marley and K.L. Sperry, “In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) of MTBE”, Proceedings of 2002 Joint CSCE/ASCE International Conference on Environmental Engineering, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, July 2002.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Sperry, K.L, C.M. Stanley, M.C. Marley, C.J. Bruell, C. Liang, “Iron Catalyzed Persulfate Oxidation of Chlorinated Solvents”, Proceeding of The Third International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May 20-23, 2002.  (Poster Presentation)
  • Gefell, M.J., K.L. Sperry, K. Rawson, E. Kolodziej and P. Mlodzinski, “Laboratory and Field Measurement of Potassium Permanganate Consumption by Fractured Sedimentary Bedrock”, Proceedings of The Third International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May 2002.  (Poster Presentation)
  • Bruell, C. J., C. Liang, M.C. Marley, and K.L. Sperry, “Thermally Activated Persulfate Oxidation Of Trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA): A Kinetic Study”, Proceedings of The 17th Annual International Conference on Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water, Amherst, Massachusetts, October 2001.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Parikh, J.M., M.C. Marley, A.M. Lee, D.P. Keane and E. Droste,  “Observed Enhanced Bioremediation Processes During and After Field Scale Testing of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation using Persulfate and Permanganate”, Proceedings of The First International Conference on Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, June 25-29, 2001.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Magee, S., Parikh, J. and Droste, E., “Design And Implementation of a Dual Oxidant Injection System using Persulfate and Permanganate”, Proceedings of The First International Conference on Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, June 25-29, 2001.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Sperry, K.L., R. Kane, C.S. Koll, and R.J. Cody, “In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Vinyl Chloride Using Sodium Permanganate”, Proceedings of The First International Conference on Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, June 25-29, 2001. (Platform Presentation)
  • Bruell, C.J., C. Liang, M.C. Marley, and K.L. Sperry, “Kinetics of Thermally Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA)”, Proceedings of The First International Conference on Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, June 25-29, 2001.  (Platform Presentation)
  • Sperry, K.L., C. M. Stanley, K. Kelley, and J. Hochreiter, “Field Trial of In Situ Iron Catalyzed Persulfate (ICP) Oxidation of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds (CVOCs)”, Proceedings of The First International Conference on Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, June 25-29, 2001. (Platform Presentation)

 

Patents
  • Bruell, C.J., C. Liang, M.C. Marley, and K.L. Sperry, 2004, “Chemical Oxidation of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants by Chelated Transition Metal Catalyzed Persulfate”, U.S. Patent Application Publication No.: US20040197150